Elder People NutritionMature people undergo a series of modifications of the body which include digestion and metabolism of different nutritive factors.
Teeth deterioration, digestive secretion decrease, the digestive mucosa atrophy, motility disorders of different segments of the digestive tube, modification in the absorption of different nutritive factors and modification of the equilibrium between them, these are all factors which contribute to the digestion and assimilation disorder.
One can observe a slow-down of the metabolism in comparison with the metabolism of a normal adult.
The carbohydrate metabolism undergoes changes as well. Thus, one can observe in many cases a decrease of glucose tolerance by their decomposition slow down.
The lipidic metabolism is perturbed too. There is a cholesterol and blood neutral fat increase, with their accumulation in blood vessels which facilitates the development of arteriosclerosis.
As for the protein metabolism, one can notice an increase of proteins' catabolism with the decrease of the regeneration and tissues reconstruction function in the advantage of their decomposing.
There are also modifications of the hydro electrolysable metabolism, with different repartition of ions in different parts of the body. As calcium is not deposited in bones anymore, skeleton demineralization phenomena appear.
One must take into account all these changes caused by the body's ageing process, when establishing the alimentation for these persons.
According with the World Health Organization expert committee, the daily caloric contribution must decrease with 3% at every 10 years when one is between 25- 45, with 7,5% for every 10 years between 54 and 65 and with 10% when one is over 65. Thus, between 65 and 70, a person's caloric contribution is of 2400 calories/day for men and 2100 calories/day for women. These figures are not fix, they can change according to the person's life style, the daily effort, etc.
The protein need is between 1- 1,5 g/kgc/day, taking into consideration the old persons' tendency to proteinic denutrition, the consequence of intense nitrate catabolism out of which, at least half with great biological value, found in dairies and milk, white of the egg, fish meat, chicken, beef. Avoid aliments rich in purines, given increased tendency of old people to gout attacks.
Lipids will be given in small quantities, of 70�80 g/day, important for their caloric contribution as well as for the soluble vitamins it spreads.
As previously shown, old people have the tendency to increase blood lipids with their accumulation on the vessels' walls. That is why, the global quantity of alimentary lipids will be at a low level and out of these, at least half of them will be of vegetal origin, rich in non- saturated fat acids with hypocholesterolemia effect ( diminishes the sanguine cholesterol), preventing their accumulation on the walls of the blood-vessels. It is useful as it can prevent: myocardial attack, congestion or brain hemorrhage etc.
Glucose won't surpass 50/0 from the calories global daily. They will be provided by rye bread, potatoes, pastries, vegetables and fruits. Intense sweets will be avoided although they are preferred by this category of persons for their lovely taste and the minimum effort they require for digestion. Still, they provide a great quantity of glucose which overtax the endocrine function of the pancreas (the insulin secretion), which is already at a low level, leading to its exhaustion and the appearance of diabetes mellitus.
Fruits and vegetables consumed as such or as fresh juices bring important quantities of minerals and vitamins, whose role is very important for mature persons' body, threaten by important metabolic disequilibrium. Due to the substances they contain, they have laxative effect helping the shaping and evacuation of ordure at these individuals who have frequent tendency of constipation. As there might be some impediments in the raw vegetables and fruits consumption because of the teeth or some chronic inflammations of the colon (colitis with fermentation diarrhea), they can be used as fruits or vegetable juices or grated without seed or peel, mashed or in some other way which facilitates their consumption.
We hereby give a list of allowed and forbidden aliments for an old person.Among the allowed aliments we mention:
Frequent (5-6 a day) and inconsistent meals are preferred.
Dinner should be served at least 2 or 3 hours before going to sleep and it shouldn't be consistent.
Aliments will be cooked as simple as possible, they will be as fresh as possible but with the prettiest disposal, in order to stimulate these fellow's appetite which is very low. They will be easier to digest. Spices can be used, especially the aromatized one, if well endured by the organism as they stimulate appetite.
Tea and coffee are allowed for those who usually drink them but in small quantities, avoiding their consumption in the evening because they stress the insomnia, frequent for mature persons.
From time to time, one may keep a fruit and raw vegetables diet which detoxifies the organism of the toxins resulted from the metabolism. These diet days are extremely helpful for fat persons, who have extra kilos. In the raw vegetables day, the dieters should lay down all day long.
We present a menu model for an aged person with a normal weight.Breakfast
Type of a green day menu for an over weight individual:In the morning
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